Biologie de la peau

MicroRNAs/microRNAs/microRNA

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small 21- to 23-nucleotide (nt) noncoding RNAs found in all eukaryotic cells, except those of marine plants, algae and fungi. They are capable of modulating mRNA expression by base pair interaction with mRNAs (mostly within their 39 untranslated regions [UTRs]) in the context of a miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNANP) complex. In many instances, their expression is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. miRNAs number is more than 700 in the human genome, and more than 60% of human coding genes are predicted to have miR target sites in their 39UTRs. Bioinformatic and experimental approaches suggest that any given miR can have hundreds of targets. The simplest view of the miRNA pathway is that, directed by the tissue-specific profile of transcription factors, it constitutively produces a cellular ‘‘miR-ome,’’ which fine-tunes the protein output of the transcriptome. They are implicated in many if not all biological processes in animals, from apoptosis and cell signaling to organogenesis and development.

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