Biologie de la peau

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

The articles about the structure and the functions of skin and its components

 

Most recent articles


Most recent articles


Barrier function

Friday 20 May 2011 by Michel Démarchez
Bibliography Elias PM. The epidermal permeability barrier: from the early days at Harvard to emerging concepts (2004). J Invest Dermatol. ;122(2):xxxvi-xxxix. Elias PM. Stratum corneum defensive functions: an integrated view. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Aug;125(2):183-200. Review Madison KC. (...)


Cutaneous vasculature

Sunday 15 May 2011 by Michel Démarchez

In the skin, only the dermis and hypodermis are vascularized, the epidermis being a non-vascular tissue. The skin is richly supplied with a vascular network, largely exceeding its nutritive requirements, being also involved in thermoregulation, wound healing, immune reactions and the control of blood pressure. Cutaneous vessels belong to the arterial, venous or the lymphatic system; they are small branches from underlying vessels of the muscles that penetrate the subcutaneous fat, enter the deep reticular dermis and ascend vertically to the epidermis.



DERMIS

Thursday 28 April 2011

The dermis is one of the constitutive layers of the skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues; it is composed of two layers, the papillary dermis lying immediately below the epidermis and the reticular dermis accounting for the largest part of the dermis. It is a 2 to 4 mm-thick layer of connective tissue mainly composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by fibroblasts.

The dermis houses the neural, vascular, lymphatic systems, and epidermal appendages including excretory and secretory glands (sebaceous, eccrine and apocrine glands), hair follicles, and nails. Neural structures include sensory nerve receptors of Merkel and Meissner’s corpuscles (for touch), Pacinian corpuscles (for pressure), and Ruffini corpuscles (mechano-receptors). The dermis also hosts multifunctional cells of the immune system such as dendritic dermal cells, macrophages and mast cells .



The dermal-epidermal junction

Tuesday 22 March 2011 by Michel Démarchez

The dermal-epidermal junction also named cutaneous basement membrane zone is the acellular zone that is between the dermis and the epidermis.



Normal human skin

Friday 28 January 2011 by Michel Démarchez

The skin is the envelope of our body and is the most visible and the largest organ, with a surface area of 1.8 m2 and a weight of 3 kg.

The skin fulfils many functions, the main one being a barrier function. Being in direct contact with the outside environment, skin is a dynamic barrier that allows and limits inward and outward passage of water, electrolytes and various other substances and that protects against microorganism invasion, toxic agents, ultraviolet radiation   and mechanical insults. Skin is also a temperature regulator, an immune organ that can detect infections, and a sensory organ to detect temperature, touch, pain, itch and mechanical stimuli at every point of the body. Healthy skin being a major component of our physical appearance, skin play a major role in our social and sexual communication.



The epidermis

Thursday 27 January 2011 by Michel Démarchez

The epidermis is the outermost portion of the skin. It is a continually renewing stratified (= several layers), squamous epithelium. The keratinocytes (= keratin-producing cells) are the main epidermal cell type (90 to 95 %). The other epidermal cells include melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkel cells.



Melanocyte and pigmentation

Tuesday 25 January 2011 by Michel Démarchez

Normal skin pigmentation   is a complex process that, in the epidermis   as in the hair follicles, begins with the synthesis of melanin within melanosomes in the melanocytes, followed by melanosome transfer to neighboring basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. In basal cells, melanin granules are translocated to the upper pole of the nucleus, forming a melanin cap that protect DNA from UV   rays. Melanin granules are eventually degraded as the keratinocyte undergoes terminal differentiation.

In humans, the melanocytes are localised either in the basal layers of the epidermis or in the hair follicles. Whatever is their localisation in skin, the melanocytes are derived from precursor cells (called melanoblasts) that originate from the neural crest.

Mammalian melanocytes produce in their melanosomes, two chemically distinct types of melanin pigments: black-brown eumelanin and yellow-reddish pheomelanin. In the melanocytes, eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes cohabit.

Tyrosinase is the key-enzyme which regulates the first steps of eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis: the transformation of L-tyrosines into L-3,4 dihydroxyphénylalanine (DOPAs) and then into DOPAquinones. From DOPAquinones, the synthesis pathways are different for the pheomelanin or eumelanin.

In human, as in the others mammals, the skin and hair color is mainly determined by the number, the size, the type, and the mode of repartition of the melanosomes. It is particularly interesting to note that in normal conditions, the racial differences in skin pigmentation in human do not depend of the melanocyte number in the epidermis. For a specific area, the number of epidermal melanocytes is nearly the same in Caucasoids, Negroids and Mongoloids.



Merkel cell

Tuesday 25 January 2011

Summary

Merkel cell were first identified by German anatomist Friedrich Sigmund Merkel in 1875. Merkel cells are epidermal cells localised in the basal layer of the epidermis   and the epithelial sheath of hair follicles. The vast majority of Merkel cells are intimately associated with a nerve terminal but some are not.

Whether Merkel cells originate from embryonic epidermal or neural crest progenitors has been a matter of intense controversy but recent data demonstrate an epidermal origin of mammalian Merkel cells.

Merkel cells are sensory receptor cells, that transmit signals through synaptic contacts with somatosensory neurons. Merkel cell-neurite complex are among the most sensitive touch receptors mediating one form of light touch important for tactile two-point discrimination and for detection of shapes, curvature and textures.

The Merkel cells that are without contact to nerve terminals form part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system involved with modulation of peripheral neural responses. It is these cells, rather than those acting as mechanoreceptors, that are believed to be at the origin of a highly malignant skin cancer   called Merkel cell carcinoma.



Desmosomes

Monday 21 June 2010 by Michel Démarchez

Desmosomes are highly specialized anchoring junctions that link intermediate filaments to sites of intercellular adhesion, thus facilitating the formation of a supracellular scaffolding that distributes mechanical forces
throughout a tissue.



Indirect Immunofluorescence

Monday 24 May 2010 by Michel Démarchez

Article to be made


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